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#Analysis of recent #scientific #information on #avian #influenza A(#H7N9) virus - 10 February 2017 (@WHO, edited)

  Title : #Analysis of recent #scientific #information on #avian #influenza A(#H7N9) virus - 10 February 2017. Subject : Avian Influenza, ...

27 Feb 2017

Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Czech Republic [infected #wildbirds] (#OIE, Feb. 27 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Czech Republic [infected #wildbirds].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, wild birds epizootics in Czech Republic.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic influenza A viruses (infection with) (non-poultry including wild birds) H5N8, Czech Republic

Information received on 27/02/2017 from Dr Zbyněk Semerád, Director General, State Veterinary Administration, Veterinary Administration, Prague, Czech Republic

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 7
    • Date of start of the event    04/01/2017
    • Date of confirmation of the event    04/01/2017
    • Report date    27/02/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE    27/02/2017
    • Reason for notification    First occurrence of a listed disease
    • Manifestation of disease    Clinical disease
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus
    • Serotype    H5N8
    • Nature of diagnosis    Clinical, Laboratory (basic), Necropsy
    • This event pertains to    a defined zone within the country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 2
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Destroyed    - Slaughtered
        • Mallard:Anas platyrhynchos(Anatidae)  - … – 2    - 2    - 0    - 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Mallard:Anas platyrhynchos(Anatidae)    - **    - **    - 100.00%    - **
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
          • **Not calculated because of missing information
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Contact with wild species

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N8 ; Wild Birds; Czech Republic.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Lithuania [infected #wildbirds] (#OIE, Feb. 27 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Lithuania [infected #wildbirds].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, wild birds epizootics in Lithuania.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic influenza A viruses (infection with) (non-poultry including wild birds) H5N8, Lithuania

Information received on 27/02/2017 from Dr Vidmantas Paulauskas, Deputy Director, State Food and Veterinary Service, DGA openRR, VILNIUS, Lithuania

  • Summary
    • Report type    Immediate notification
    • Date of start of the event    27/02/2017
    • Date of confirmation of the event    27/02/2017
    • Report date    27/02/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE    27/02/2017
    • Reason for notification    First occurrence of a listed disease in the country
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus
    • Serotype    H5N8
    • Nature of diagnosis    Laboratory (basic), Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to    the whole country
  • New outbreaks (1)
    • Outbreak 1    - Kaunas city, KAUNAS
      • Date of start of the outbreak    27/02/2017
      • Outbreak status    Resolved (27/02/2017)
      • Epidemiological unit    Other
      • Affected animals: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Destroyed    - Slaughtered
        • Mute Swan:Cygnus olor(Anatidae)  - … – 6    - 6    - 0    - 0
          • Affected population: Six mute swans found dead in Kaunas city, near the river Nemunas.
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 1
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Destroyed    - Slaughtered
        • Mute Swan:Cygnus olor(Anatidae)  - … – 6    - 6    - 0    - 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Mute Swan:Cygnus olor(Anatidae)    - **    - **    - 100.00%    - **
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
          • **Not calculated because of missing information
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Unknown or inconclusive

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N8 ; Wild Birds; Lithuania.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #UK [a #poultry #outbreak] (#OIE, Feb. 27 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #UK [a #poultry #outbreak].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, poultry epizootics in the UK.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8, United Kingdom

Information received on 24/02/2017 from Dr Nigel Gibbens, Chief Veterinary Officer, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, LONDON, United Kingdom

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 11
    • Date of start of the event    11/12/2016
    • Date of confirmation of the event    16/12/2016
    • Report date    24/02/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE    24/02/2017
    • Reason for notification    Reoccurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence    17/07/2015
    • Manifestation of disease    Clinical disease
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype    H5N8
    • Nature of diagnosis    Clinical
    • This event pertains to    a defined zone within the country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 1
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Destroyed    - Slaughtered
        • Birds    - 32    - **    - 20    - 12    - 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Birds    - **    - 62.50%    - **    - 100.00%
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
          • **Not calculated because of missing information
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Contact with wild species
  • Epidemiological comments   
    • First turkey flock (Louth - start date 11/12/2016):
      • disease control programmes have been applied and primary cleansing and disinfection of the infected premises was completed on 30 December 2016.
      • Investigations conducted on contact tracings and poultry holdings in the restriction zones have uncovered no evidence of further spread.
      • All control measures set out in the immediate notification have been applied.
      • Epidemiological investigations have been completed.
      • The outbreak is resolved.
    • Second turkey flock (Louth - start date 15/01/2017):
      • disposal and culling have been completed.
      • Primary cleansing and disinfection has been completed; 3km and 10km zones have been put in place.
      • Epidemiological investigations have been completed - outbreak is resolved.
      • No trade to international partners.
    • First breeding pheasant flock (Pilling - start date 23/01/2017):
      • Culling and disposal of the birds have been completed.
      • Primary cleansing and disinfection has been completed.
      • 3km and 10km zones have been put in place.
      • Epidemiological investigations are on-going.
      • No trade to international partners.
    • Commercial flock of rearing turkeys (Boston - start date 25/01/2017):
      • Culling and disposal of the birds have been completed.
      • Primary cleansing and disinfection has been completed.
      • 3km and 10km zones have been put in place.
      • Epidemiological investigations are on-going.
      • No trade to international partners.
    • Second breeding pheasant flock (Pilling - start date 26/01/2017):
      • Pheasants in harem pens for breeding.
      • Clinical signs observed.
      • Pheasants recently moved during the high risk spread period from AIV 2017/04 Pilling site.
      • Culling and disposal have been completed.
      • Primary cleansing and disinfection has been completed.
    • Third breeding pheasant flock (Pilling - start date 29/01/2017):
      • Pheasants recently moved during the high risk spread period from AIV 2017/04 Pilling site.
      • Clinical signs were observed.
      • Different species of game birds are present at this large breeding premises.
      • Culling and disposal have been completed.
      • Primary cleansing and disinfection has been completed.
    • Commercial flock of breeding broiler chickens (Redgrave - start date 12/02/2017):
      • Birds were housed.
      • Culling and disposal and primary C&D has been completed.
    • Small backyard flock of laying hens (Haltwhistle - start date 17/02/2017):
      • birds were only partially housed.
      • Culling and disposal have been carried out on the remaining hens.
      • Primary cleansing and disinfection is underway.
    • Backyard cases in Settle and Llanelli:
      • all control measures set out in the immediate notification were applied including restriction zones.
      • Epidemiological investigations are ongoing.
      • These cases are resolved.

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N8 ; Poultry; Wild Birds; UK.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #France [thirteen #wildbirds #outbreaks] (#OIE, Feb. 27 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #France [thirteen #wildbirds #outbreaks].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, wild birds epizootics in France.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8, France

Information received on 24/02/2017 from Dr Loic Evain, Directeur Général adjoint, CVO, Direction générale de l'alimentation, Ministère de l'Agriculture, de l'Agroalimentaire et de la Forêt, Paris, France

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 11
    • Date of start of the event    17/11/2016
    • Date of confirmation of the event    26/11/2016
    • Report date    24/02/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE    24/02/2017
    • Reason for notification    New strain of a listed disease in the country
    • Causal agent    Virus de l'influenza aviaire hautement pathogène
    • Serotype    H5N8
    • Nature of diagnosis    Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to    a defined zone within the country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 13
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Destroyed    - Slaughtered
        • Mute Swan:Cygnus olor(Anatidae)        - 11 – **    - 20    - 0    - 0
        • Tundra Swan:Cygnus columbianus(Anatidae)  - … – 1    - 1    - 0    - 0
        • Greylag Goose:Anser anser(Anatidae) – … – **    - 1    - 0    - 0
        • Eurasian buzzard (common buzzard):Buteo buteo(Accipitridae) – … – **    - 1    - 0    - 0
        • Eurasian Collared-Dove:Streptopelia decaocto(Columbidae)  - … – **    - 1    - 0    - 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    -Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Mute Swan:Cygnus olor(Anatidae)    - **    - **    - **    - **
        • Tundra Swan:Cygnus columbianus(Anatidae)    - **    - **    - 100.00%    - **
        • Greylag Goose:Anser anser(Anatidae)    - **    - **    - **    - **
        • Eurasian buzzard (common buzzard):Buteo buteo(Accipitridae)    - **    - **    - **    - **
        • Eurasian Collared-Dove:Streptopelia decaocto(Columbidae)    - **    - **    - **    - **
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
          • **Not calculated because of missing information
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Contact with wild species
  • Epidemiological comments   
    • La notification concerne des animaux sauvages. L’épisode de mortalité sur de la faune sauvage, survenant dans une zone où le niveau de risque avait été considéré comme élevé (arrêté ministériel du 16 novembre 2016 qualifiant le niveau de risque en matière d’influenza aviaire), les élevages de volailles font donc depuis cette date l’objet de mesures de biosécurité accrues et de confinement. Une enquête épidémiologique a été menée et les mesures de surveillance sont renforcées autour du foyer.

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N8 ; Wild Birds; France.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Poland [four #poultry #outbreaks] (#OIE, Feb. 27 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Poland [four #poultry #outbreaks].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, poultry epizootics in Poland.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8, Poland

Information received on 24/02/2017 from Dr Krzysztof Jazdzewski, Deputy Chief Veterinary Officer, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, General Veterinary Inspectorate, VARSOVIE, Poland

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 29
    • Date of start of the event    28/10/2016
    • Date of confirmation of the event    05/11/2016
    • Report date    24/02/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE    24/02/2017
    • Reason for notification    New strain of a listed disease in the country
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype    H5N8
    • Nature of diagnosis    Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to    a defined zone within the country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 4
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Destroyed    - Slaughtered
        • Birds    - 18592    - 271    - 271    - 18321    - 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Birds    - 1.46%    - 1.46%    - 100.00%    - 100.00%
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Unknown or inconclusive
      • Contact with wild species

(...)

___

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N8 ; Poultry; Poland.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Czech Republic [six #poultry #outbreaks] (#OIE, Feb. 27 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Czech Republic [six #poultry #outbreaks].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, poultry epizootics in Czech republic.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8, Czech Republic

Information received on 27/02/2017 from Dr Zbyněk Semerád, Director General, State Veterinary Administration, Veterinary Administration, Prague, Czech Republic

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 8
    • Date of start of the event    04/01/2017
    • Date of confirmation of the event    04/01/2017
    • Report date    27/02/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE    27/02/2017
    • Reason for notification    First occurrence of a listed disease
    • Manifestation of disease    Clinical disease
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype    H5N8
    • Nature of diagnosis    Clinical, Laboratory (advanced), Necropsy
    • This event pertains to    a defined zone within the country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 6
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Destroyed    - Slaughtered
        • Birds    - 102    - 38    - 38    - 64    - 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Birds    - 37.25%    - 37.25%    - 100.00%    - 100.00%
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Contact with wild species

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N8 ; Poultry; Czech Republic.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N1, #Nepal [a #poultry #outbreak] (#OIE, Feb. 27 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N1, #Nepal [a #poultry #outbreak].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N1 subtype, poultry epizootics in Nepal.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, Nepal

Information received on 25/02/2017 from Dr Bimal Kumar Nirmal, Doctor, Department of Livestock Services, DGA openRR, NEPAL, Nepal

  • Summary
    • Report type Immediate notification
    • Date of start of the event 17/02/2017
    • Date of confirmation of the event 22/02/2017
    • Report date 25/02/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE 25/02/2017
    • Reason for notification Reoccurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence 22/05/2014
    • Manifestation of disease Clinical disease
    • Causal agent Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype H5N1
    • Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (basic), Laboratory (advanced), Necropsy
    • This event pertains to the whole country
  • New outbreaks
    • Summary of outbreaks
      • Total outbreaks: 1
        • Outbreak Location  - GANDAKI ( Khalte masina, Pokhara Sub Metropolitan city-18, Kaski )
      • Total animals affected:  Species -  Susceptible -  Cases -  Deaths -  Destroyed -  Slaughtered
        • Birds  -  395  -  98  -  98  -  297  -  0
      • Outbreak statistics:  Species -  Apparent morbidity rate -  Apparent mortality rate -  Apparent case fatality rate -  Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Birds -  24.81% -  24.81% -  100.00% -  100.00%
          • * Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter;
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Epidemiological comments
    • Ducks reared under a backyard system started to show torticollis and greenish white diarrhea and died.
    • Chicken reared in the same premises also died acutely without showing any prominent clinical signs.
    • Premises adjoining to the affected household also showed the similar symptoms with few deaths.

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N1 ; Poultry; Nepal.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5, #Russia [infected #wildbirds] (#OIE, Feb. 27 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5, #Russia [infected #wildbirds].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5Nx subtype, wild birds epizootics in Russia.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic influenza A viruses (infection with) (non-poultry including wild birds) H5, Russia

Information received on 27/02/2017 from Dr Evgeny Nepoklonov, Deputy Head, Federal Service for Veterinary and Phytosanitary Surveillance, Ministry of Agriculture, Moscow, Russia

  • Summary
    • Report type Immediate notification
    • Date of start of the event 17/02/2017
    • Date of confirmation of the event 20/02/2017
    • Report date 27/02/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE 27/02/2017
    • Reason for notification Reoccurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence 2017
    • Manifestation of disease Clinical disease
    • Causal agent Highly pathogenic influenza A virus
    • Serotype H5
    • Nature of diagnosis Laboratory (basic), Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
  • New outbreaks
    • Summary of outbreaks
      • Total outbreaks: 1
        • Outbreak Location  - KALININGRADSKAYA OBLAST ( Kaliningrad )
      • Total animals affected:  Species -  Susceptible -  Cases -  Deaths -  Destroyed -  Slaughtered
        • Mute Swan:Anatidae (Cygnus olor)  - … -  3  -  3  -  0  -  0
      • Outbreak statistics:  Species -  Apparent morbidity rate -  Apparent mortality rate -  Apparent case fatality rate -  Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Mute Swan:Anatidae (Cygnus olor) -  ** -  ** -  100.00% -  **
          • * Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter;
          • ** Not calculated because of missing information;
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
      • Unknown or inconclusive

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5Nx ; Wild Birds; Russia.

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#WHO publishes #list of #bacteria for which new #antibiotics are urgently needed (@WHO, Feb. 27 ‘17)

 

Title: #WHO publishes #list of #bacteria for which new #antibiotics are urgently needed.

Subject: Antibiotics resistance, priority pathogen list for antibiotics R&D.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO), full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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WHO publishes list of bacteria for which new antibiotics are urgently needed

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News release / 27 February 2017 / GENEVA

WHO today published its first ever list of antibiotic-resistant "priority pathogens" – a catalogue of 12 families of bacteria that pose the greatest threat to human health.

The list was drawn up in a bid to guide and promote research and development (R&D) of new antibiotics, as part of WHO’s efforts to address growing global resistance to antimicrobial medicines.

The list highlights in particular the threat of gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics. These bacteria have built-in abilities to find new ways to resist treatment and can pass along genetic material that allows other bacteria to become drug-resistant as well.

"This list is a new tool to ensure R&D responds to urgent public health needs," says Dr Marie-Paule Kieny, WHO's Assistant Director-General for Health Systems and Innovation.

"Antibiotic resistance is growing, and we are fast running out of treatment options.

‘’If we leave it to market forces alone, the new antibiotics we most urgently need are not going to be developed in time."

The WHO list is divided into three categories according to the urgency of need for new antibiotics: critical, high and medium priority.

The most critical group of all includes multidrug resistant bacteria that pose a particular threat in hospitals, nursing homes, and among patients whose care requires devices such as ventilators and blood catheters.

They include Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and various Enterobacteriaceae (including Klebsiella, E. coli, Serratia, and Proteus). They can cause severe and often deadly infections such as bloodstream infections and pneumonia.

These bacteria have become resistant to a large number of antibiotics, including carbapenems and third generation cephalosporins – the best available antibiotics for treating multi-drug resistant bacteria.

The second and third tiers in the list – the high and medium priority categories – contain other increasingly drug-resistant bacteria that cause more common diseases such as gonorrhoea and food poisoning caused by salmonella.

G20 health experts will meet this week in Berlin. Mr Hermann Gröhe, Federal Minister of Health, Germany says:

"We need effective antibiotics for our health systems. We have to take joint action today for a healthier tomorrow. Therefore, we will discuss and bring the attention of the G20 to the fight against antimicrobial resistance. WHO’s first global priority pathogen list is an important new tool to secure and guide research and development related to new antibiotics."

The list is intended to spur governments to put in place policies that incentivize basic science and advanced R&D by both publicly funded agencies and the private sector investing in new antibiotic discovery. It will provide guidance to new R&D initiatives such as the WHO/Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) Global Antibiotic R&D Partnership that is engaging in not-for-profit development of new antibiotics.

Tuberculosis – whose resistance to traditional treatment has been growing in recent years – was not included in the list because it is targeted by other, dedicated programmes. Other bacteria that were not included, such as streptococcus A and B and chlamydia, have low levels of resistance to existing treatments and do not currently pose a significant public health threat.

The list was developed in collaboration with the Division of Infectious Diseases at the University of Tübingen, Germany, using a multi-criteria decision analysis technique vetted by a group of international experts.

The criteria for selecting pathogens on the list were: how deadly the infections they cause are:

  • whether their treatment requires long hospital stays;
  • how frequently they are resistant to existing antibiotics when people in communities catch them;
  • how easily they spread between animals, from animals to humans, and from person to person;
  • whether they can be prevented (e.g. through good hygiene and vaccination);
  • how many treatment options remain; and
  • whether new antibiotics to treat them are already in the R&D pipeline.

__

"New antibiotics targeting this priority list of pathogens will help to reduce deaths due to resistant infections around the world," says Prof Evelina Tacconelli, Head of the Division of Infectious Diseases at the University of Tübingen and a major contributor to the development of the list.

"Waiting any longer will cause further public health problems and dramatically impact on patient care."

While more R&D is vital, alone, it cannot solve the problem. To address resistance, there must also be better prevention of infections and appropriate use of existing antibiotics in humans and animals, as well as rational use of any new antibiotics that are developed in future.

 

WHO priority pathogens list for R&D of new antibiotics

Priority 1: CRITICAL

  • Acinetobacter baumannii, carbapenem-resistant
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa, carbapenem-resistant
  • Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant, ESBL-producing

Priority 2: HIGH

  • Enterococcus faecium, vancomycin-resistant
  • Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant, vancomycin-intermediate and resistant
  • Helicobacter pylori, clarithromycin-resistant
  • Campylobacter spp., fluoroquinolone-resistant
  • Salmonellae, fluoroquinolone-resistant
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae, cephalosporin-resistant, fluoroquinolone-resistant

Priority 3: MEDIUM

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae, penicillin-non-susceptible
  • Haemophilus influenzae, ampicillin-resistant
  • Shigella spp., fluoroquinolone-resistant

 

Media contacts

Olivia Lawe-Davies, WHO Department of Communications, Mobile: +41 79 472 7429, Office : +41 22 791 4621, Email: lawedavieso@who.int / Simeon Bennett, WHO Department of Communications, Mobile: +41 79 603 7294, Telephone: +41 22 791 1578, E-mail: simeonb@who.int

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Worldwide; Research; Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Global Health.

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#Human #infection with #avian #influenza #H7N9 virus – #China [#HPAI for #poultry variant in #Guangdong] (@WHO, Feb. 27 ‘17)

 

Title: #Human #infection with #avian #influenza #H7N9 virus – #China [#HPAI for #poultry variant in #Guangdong].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, human cases in Guangdong province of China; genome sequences from two human cases revealed transition from Low Pathogenic to Highly Pathogenic for poultry.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO), full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – China

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Disease outbreak news  / 27 February 2017

On 18 February 2017, the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China (NHFPC) reported to WHO the results of genetic sequencing on virus isolates from two previously reported cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus from Guangdong province.

Changes at the cleavage site of the HA gene suggestive of being highly pathogenic to poultry was confirmed by the Chinese National Influenza Centre of the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC).

 

Details of the cases

The two cases were reported through International Health Regulations (IHR) notification on 19 January 2017.

  1. A 43-year-old female with symptom onset on 29 December 2016. The case recovered. She had poultry exposure but also cared for her sister who was hospitalized with avian influenza A(H7N9). This was reported as a family cluster.
  2. A 57-year-old male with symptom onset on 5 January 2017. The case is still hospitalized and in critical condition as of 22 February 2017. He was reported to have had poultry exposure.

Investigation revealed exposure to sick and dead poultry.

None of the 105 close contacts of these two cases developed symptoms during the two weeks of medical observation.

To date, there is no evidence of changes in pathogenicity to and transmissibility among humans.

 

Public health response

Considering the new developments in H7N9 genetic sequence, the Chinese government is implementing additional measures in Guangdong province on top of current existing measures:

  • Closure of markets for cleaning.
  • Emergency monitoring of poultry markets and flocks.
  • Culling of flocks if the strain is confirmed in them.

 

WHO risk assessment

This is the first report of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, since its emergence in 2013, having genetic sequences that are suggestive of evolving from a low pathogenic into a highly pathogenic avian virus.

Similar changes at the cleavage site of the HA gene were also found in genetic sequence data uploaded in Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data (GISAID) of a virus from a recent human case reported by Taiwan, China earlier to WHO on 4 February 2017 with travel history to Guangdong.

In addition the Ministry of Agriculture China reported to World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) on 21 February 2017 that genetic sequences of virus samples from live poultry markets in Guangdong also showed changes consistent with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

So far the above genetic changes have been found in viruses from human, poultry and environmental samples from Guangdong or with travel history to Guangdong province.

In addition the genetic sequences from the two human cases from Guangdong and the case reported by Taiwan, China showed amino acid substitutions associated with neuraminidase inhibitor antiviral drug resistance.

It was reported that the three patients received antiviral treatment before samples were taken.

So far there is no evidence of change of epidemiological patterns of avian influenza A(H7N9) infection in humans.

There is no evidence that a change in the virus from low pathogenic to high pathogenic avian influenza virus has an impact on the pathogenicity or transmissibility in humans.

Overall the likelihood of further community level spread remains low.

WHO is closely monitoring the impact of these viruses on public health through its Global Influenza Surveillance and Research System (GISRS) network, and its effect on animal health through collaboration with Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and OIE, and will update public health risk assessment accordingly.

A change in the virus from low pathogenicity to highly pathogenicity in poultry may have implications on surveillance and control strategies at the animal sector.

 

WHO advice

WHO advises that travellers to countries with known outbreaks of avian influenza should avoid, if possible, poultry farms, contact with animals in live poultry markets, entering areas where poultry may be slaughtered, or contact with any surfaces that appear to be contaminated with faeces from poultry or other animals. Travellers should also wash their hands often with soap and water, and follow good food safety and good food hygiene practices.

WHO does not advise special screening at points of entry with regard to this event, nor does it currently recommend any travel or trade restrictions. As always, a diagnosis of infection with an avian influenza virus should be considered in individuals who develop severe acute respiratory symptoms while travelling in or soon after returning from an area where avian influenza is a concern.

WHO encourages countries to continue strengthening influenza surveillance, including surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) and to carefully review any unusual patterns, ensure reporting of human infections under the IHR 2005, and continue national health preparedness actions.

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; China; Guangdong; H7N9; Avian Influenza; Human; Poultry; Antivirals; Drugs Resistance; Oseltamivir; Zanamivir; Peramivir.

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