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#Avian #Influenza #H7N9 in #China: Preventing the Next #SARS (@WHO, Apr. 2 ‘17)

  Title : #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 in #China: Preventing the Next #SARS. Subject : Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype (Asian Lineage), poultry e...

25 May 2017

#Zika Virus Spread Undetected in the #Americas for many months, #NIH-Supported #Study Finds (May 25 ‘17)


Title: #Zika Virus Spread Undetected in the #Americas for many months, #NIH-Supported #Study Finds.

Subject: Zika Virus Infection, silent spread of the virus in the North and South America regions.

Source: US National Institute of Health (NIH), full page: (LINK).

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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services  / NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NIH News  / National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

For Immediate Release: Wednesday, May 24, 2017 / CONTACT: Elizabeth Deatrick, 301-402-1663, <e-mail:elizabeth.deatrick@nih.gov>

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MEDIA AVAILABILITY

ZIKA VIRUS SPREAD UNDETECTED FOR MANY MONTHS, NIH-SUPPORTED STUDY FINDS

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Virus quickly spread in the Americas, then diverged into distinct genetic groups

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  • WHAT:
    • Genetic analysis of samples collected as the Zika virus (ZIKV) spread throughout the Americas after its introduction in 2013 or 2014 has shown that the virus circulated undetected for up to a year in some regions before it came to the attention of public health authorities.
    • Genetic sequencing has also enabled scientists to recreate the epidemiological and evolutionary paths the virus took as it spread and split into the distinct subtypes -- or clades -- that have been detected in the Americas.
    • The research, published in Nature today, was supported in part by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.
    • The researchers reconstructed Zika's dispersal by sequencing ZIKV genetic material collected from hundreds of patients in 10 countries and territories.
    • They eventually amassed a database of 110 complete or partial ZIKV genomes -- the largest collection to date -- which they analyzed along with 64 published and publicly shared genomes.
    • Based on changes to the viral genome that accumulated as the disease moved through new populations, the researchers concluded that ZIKV spread rapidly upon its initial introduction in Brazil, likely sometime in 2013.
    • Later, at several points in early-to-mid 2015, the virus separated into at least three clades, or distinct genetic groups whose members share a common ancestor, in Colombia, Honduras, and Puerto Rico, as well as a fourth type found in parts of the Caribbean and the continental United States.
    • The researchers used innovative sequencing approaches to overcome the challenge of working with samples not originally intended for viral genetic sequencing.
    • In future outbreaks, the researchers suggest, appropriate samples for genetic sequencing should be collected from the beginning to make retrospective and concurrent analysis much easier and more accurate.
    • These results also may have a direct impact on public health, as a clear understanding of the genetic changes to pathogens that can occur during emerging outbreaks will be key to informing disease surveillance and development of diagnostic tests.
    • Similarly, genetic analysis and prompt sharing in public databases can enhance the understanding of the dynamics of disease spread, so that public health authorities may implement the best possible control and prevention strategies.
  • ARTICLE:
    • HC Metsky, et al. Genome sequencing reveals Zika virus diversity and spread in the Americas. Nature DOI: 10.1038/nature22402 (2017).
  • WHO:
    • NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., is available to comment. Liliana L. Brown., Ph.D., a program officer in the Office of Genomics and Advanced Technologies in NIAID's Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID), and Cristina Cassetti, Ph.D., chief of the Virology Branch in DMID, are also available for comment.
  • CONTACT:

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Keywords: USA; Updates; Research; Zika Virus; America Region.

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24 May 2017

#Avian #Influenza #H7N9 – #Situation #update as of 24 May 2017 (#FAO, edited)


Title: #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 – #Situation #update as of 24 May 2017.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, poultry enzootic and human cases in China.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), full page: (LINK).

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Avian Influenza H7N9 – Situation update as of 24 May 2017

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The next update will be issued on 31 May 2017


Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added or changed since the last H7N9 situation update appears in red. Human cases are depicted in the geographic location of their report. For some cases, exposure may have occurred in one geographic location but reported in another. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Ministries of Health, Provincial Government websites; Centers for Disease Prevention and Control [CDC]) and international sources (World Health Organization [WHO], World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]) as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.


Overview

  • Situation:
    • Influenza A(H7N9) virus with pandemic potential.
  • Country:
    • China; three human cases originated in China and were reported in Malaysia (1) and Canada (2).
  • Number of human cases:
    • 1525 confirmed; 579 deaths (since February 2013).
  • Number of new findings in birds or the environment since last update (17 May 2017):
    • 3.
  • Number of new human cases since last update (17 May 2017):
    • 17.
  • Provinces/municipalities:
    • [China]
      • Beijing,
      • Chongqing,
      • Shanghai and
      • Tianjin Municipalities;
      • Anhui,
      • Fujian,
      • Gansu,
      • Guangdong,
      • Guizhou,
      • Hebei,
      • Henan,
      • Hubei,
      • Hunan,
      • Jiangsu,
      • Jiangxi,
      • Jilin,
      • Liaoning,
      • Qinghai,
      • Shaanxi,
      • Shanxi,
      • Shandong,
      • Sichuan,
      • Yunnan and
      • Zhejiang Provinces;
      • Hong Kong SAR;
      • Macao SAR,
      • Guangxi,
      • Inner Mongolia,
      • Ningxia Hui,
      • Tibet and
      • Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regions
    • [Taiwan];
    • [Malaysia]
      • Sabah;
    • [Canada]
      • British Columbia.
  • Animal/environmental findings:
    • around 2,500 virological samples from the environment, chickens, pigeons, ducks and a tree sparrow tested positive; positives mainly from live bird markets, vendors and some commercial or breeding farms.
  • Highly pathogenic virus findings:
    • The H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was detected in a total of 43 poultry or environmental samples (32 chickens, 1 duck and 10 environmental samples) from 23 live bird markets (LBMs) in:
      • Fujian (Longyan City),
      • Guangdong (Dongguan, Guangzhou, Huizhou, Lufeng, Meijiang, Meizhou, Zhongshan Cities and Haifeng County),
      • Hunan (Chenzhou City) and
      • Guangxi (Guilin City) Provinces;
        • and
    • from 4 farms in:
      • Guangxi (Guilin City),
      • Hebei (a chicken layer farm [reference]),
      • Henan (a chicken layer farm in Pingdingshan City [reference]) and
      • Hunan (backyard in Chenzhou City and a large chicken layer farm in Yongzhou City [reference]) Provinces.
    • Out of the 1525 confirmed human cases, H7N9 virus isolates from three human cases (two from Guangdong and one from Taiwan Provinces) were found to be highly pathogenic for chickens.
  • FAO actions:
    • liaise with China and partners, monitor situation, monitor virus evolution, conduct market chain analysis, risk assessment, surveillance guidance and communication.


Map 1. Human cases and positive findings in birds or the environment

Human cases and positive findings in birds or the environment

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|-- Click to enlarge –|

Note: Human cases are depicted in the geographic location where they were reported; for some cases, exposure may have occurred in a different geographic location. Precise location of 24 human cases in Anhui (2), Beijing (2), Guangdong (1), Guangxi (1), Hebei (3), Hunan (1), Hubei (2), Jiangsu (1), Jiangxi (6), Sichuan (2) and Zhejiang (3) Provinces are currently not known, these cases are therefore not shown on the map.


Situation update

  • Animals
    • 17 May, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region:
      • H7N9 virus was detected for the first time in environmental and poultry samples collected from live bird markets in three different cities, namely Tongliao City, Xilin Gol League, and Hinggan League [reference].
      • So far, no human case has ever been reported in Inner Mongolia. The province borders Mongolia.
    • 15 May, Henan:
      • The H7N9 outbreak reported on 12 May was confirmed to be due to a highly pathogenic strain [reference].
  • Humans
    • Since the last update (17 May 2017), 17 new human cases have been reported in:
      • Hebei (6),
      • Shandong (2),
      • Sichuan (2),
      • Anhui (1),
      • Beijing (1),
      • Chongqing (1),
      • Jiangsu (1),
      • Shaanxi (1),
      • Shanxi (1),
      • Zhejiang (1).
    • For detailed information on human cases, please refer to WHO's Disease Outbreak News.


Figure 1. Number of positive virological samples from birds or the environment, by province and origin as of 24 May 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Number of positive virological samples from birds or the environment, by province* and origin

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|-- Click to enlarge –|


Figure 2. Number of officially reported human cases since February 2013 as of 24 May 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Number of officially reported human cases since February 2013

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|-- Click to enlarge –|


Figure 3. Incidence of officially reported human cases by month, based on onset date as of 24 May 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Incidence of officially reported human cases by week, based on onset date

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|-- Click to enlarge –|

Note: For cases with unknown onset dates from wave 1 (n=7), wave 2 (n=2), wave 3 (n=146), wave 4 (n= 27) and wave 5 (n=182) reporting dates were used instead.


Publications

  • In addition to the surveillance findings by MoA and MoH, 1,728 virologically positive samples have also been reported in 12 peer-reviewed articles (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12). A total of 71,920 samples have been collected in these studies since April 2013, of which 1,728 (2.4%) were positive for H7N9 (1,215 environmental samples, 501 chickens, 1 goose and 1 tree sparrow).
  • A study tested a HA-recombinant adenovirus-based vaccine and compared it with a H7N9 DNA vaccine (based on HA) in mice and guinea pigs. The results demonstrated that both vaccines boost regimen induced potent immune responses in animals and completely protected mice from lethal H7N9 influenza viral challenge. The data suggest that the chimpanzee adenovirus expressing HA is a promising vaccine candidate for H7N9 virus or other influenza viral subtypes [reference].
  • A study examined factors associated with poultry farmers' adoption of personal protective behaviors (PPBs) based on Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) in three cities of Jiangsu Province: Poultry farmers perceive A/H7N9 as a personally-irrelevant risk. Interventions designed to enhance perceived response efficacy, particularly among lower educated respondents, may effectively motivate adoption of PPBs. Informal information may be an important resource for enhancing response efficacy [reference].


FAO’s support to countries

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Keywords: FAO; Updates; H7N9; Avian Influenza; Human; Poultry; China.

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#China, #Sichuan province reported one new case of #H7N9 #influenza in #Zigong (March 24 ‘17)


Title: China, Sichuan province reported one new case of H7N9 influenza in Zigong.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, human case in Sichuan province of China.

Source: Local Media, full page: (LINK). Article in Chinese, edited.

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China, Sichuan province reported one new case of H7N9 influenza in Zigong

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Zigong City, Sichuan Province, the People's Government issued a circular, the area on the 24th confirmed 1 case of human infection with H7N9 avian flu, which is diagnosed in Zigong City, the first 2 (Zigong City, Sichuan Province, Zigong City, People infected with H7N9 flu cases.

The case is a male, 63 years old, owned 35 chickens for poultry breeding, live bird contact history. On May 20 was hospitalized in isolation for treatment; on May 22 identified as suspected cases. The case is now under medical treatment, in stable condition, his close contacts are medically watched and showed so far no symptoms..

At present, along the beach area has started emergency public health emergency plan, the prevention and control work in an orderly manner. Local experts said that two cases of direct contact with the case, are due to contact with live poultry and disease. Experts remind the general public to pay attention to personal hygiene, the purchase of quarantine qualified cold poultry and poultry products, try not to contact live birds or sick (dead) birds. Such as fever, headache, nasal congestion, cough, general discomfort and other flu-like symptoms, and within one week of live bird contact history, should be timely medical treatment. (Finish)

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Keywords: China; Sichuan; H7N9; Avian Influenza; Human.

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#HK, Suspected case tests negative for #MERS-CoV (CHP, May 24 ‘17)

 

Title: #HK, Suspected case tests negative for #MERS-CoV.

Subject: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, suspected imported case in Hong Kong.

Source: Centre for Health Protection, Hong Kong PRC SAR, full page: (LINK).

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Suspected case tests negative for MERS-CoV

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The Centre for Health Protection of the Department of Health today (May 24) reported that the suspected case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) pending results yesterday (May 23), upon preliminary testing, tested negative for MERS Coronavirus.

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Keywords: HK PRC SAR; Updates; MERS-CoV.

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23 May 2017

#Avian #Influenza [#H7N9, #H5N1, #H5N6] #Report - May 14-20 ‘17 (Wk20) (#HK CHP May 23, 2017)

 

Title: #Avian #Influenza [#H7N9, #H5N1, #H5N6] #Report - May 14-20 ‘17 (Wk20).

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5, H7 & H9 subtypes, human cases in China and global poultry panzootic.

Source: Centre for Health Protection, Hong Kong PRC SAR, full PDF file: (LINK).

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Avian Influenza Report - Reporting period: May 14, 2017 – May 20, 2017 (Week 20) (Published on May 23, 2017)

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Avian Influenza Report is a weekly report produced by the Respiratory Disease Office, Centre for Heath Protection of the Department of Health. This report highlights global avian influenza activity in humans and birds.

VOLUME 13, NUMBER 20

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Keywords: HK PRC SAR; Updates; H7N9; H5N1; H5N6; H9N2; Human; Poultry; China; Worldwide.

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#Avian #Influenza #H7N9 in #China, #Update – as of May 23 2017 (@CDCgov, edited)

 

Title: #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 in #China, #Update – as of May 23 2017.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, human cases in China; pandemic preparedness planning.

Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), full page: (LINK).

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H7N9 in China, Update – as of May 23 2017

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Language: [ English (US) | Español ]

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More Human Infections Reported as CDC Prepares to Ship New Candidate Vaccine Virus

May 23, 2017 — Today the World Health Organization (WHO) reported another 23 human infections with Asian H7N9 bird flu, bringing the total number of such infections during the current (fifth) epidemic to 688.

This is the largest epidemic of Asian H7N9 human infections in China since this virus emerged to infect people in 2013.

CDC has completed development of a new Asian H7N9 candidate vaccine virus (CVV) that is matched to a recently emerged lineage of Asian H7N9 viruses which have predominated during the fifth epidemic and which could be used to make vaccine if one were needed.

CDC has been monitoring the Asian H7N9 situation closely since 2013 and taken routine preparedness measures, including previously developing three candidate vaccine viruses.

Besides an increase in the number of infections being reported during the current epidemic and an increase in the geographic areas in China where human infections with Asian H7N9 are being reported, the epidemiology of H7N9 virus infections in humans does not appear to have changed.

Most human infections with Asian H7N9 continue to be associated with exposure to poultry and there is no sustained person-to-person spread of this virus, however, there have been some changes in recent Asian H7N9 viruses identified that are of public health concern.

Most recent viruses belong to a lineage of Asian H7N9 called Yangtze River Delta.

Antigenic analysis of some viruses belonging to the Yangtze River Delta lineage has showed reduced cross-reactivity with previously produced CVVs, suggesting that stockpiled vaccine made with earlier CVVs will not protect against the Yangtze River Delta lineage viruses now circulating.

Also, based on publically available genetic data, about 10% of viruses from the 5th epidemic have markers indicating reduced susceptibility (resistance) to one or more neuraminidase inhibitor antiviral medications, which are the only currently recommended treatment for avian influenza infections in people.

The new CDC CVV was derived from a low pathogenic avian influenza A/Hunan/2650/2016-like virus and was made using reverse genetics.

Creating a candidate vaccine virus is a multistep process that takes months to complete.

At this time, CDC is coordinating shipping of the new Asian H7N9 CVV to various manufacturers.

Information about the availability of the CVV was posted on the WHO website on Friday, May 18, 2017 at http://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/candidates_reagents/a_h7n9/en/.

The cumulative number of human infections with Asian H7N9 viruses reported by WHO between 2013 and May 23, 2017, was 1,486.

During the first four epidemics, most human infections occurred between December and March.

While new infections continue to be reported, the number of new infections being reported each week has declined since the peak of activity during January of the current epidemic.

More information about Asian H7N9 is available at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/h7n9-virus.htm(https://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/h7n9-virus.htm) and http://www.who.int/influenza/human_animal_interface/influenza_h7n9/en/.

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Keywords: US CDC; Updates; Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; China; Vaccines.

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#WHA elects Dr Tedros Adhanom #Ghebreyesus as new #WHO #Director-General (@WHO, May 23 ‘17)

 

Title: #WHA elects Dr Tedros Adhanom #Ghebreyesus as new #WHO #Director-General.

Subject: World Health Organization governance, newly appointed director-general.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO), full page: (LINK).

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World Health Assembly elects Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus as new WHO Director-General

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News release / 23 May 2017 / GENEVA

Today the Member States of WHO elected Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus as the new Director-General of WHO.

Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus was nominated by the Government of Ethiopia, and will begin his five-year term on 1 July 2017.

Prior to his election as WHO’s next Director-General, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus served as Minister of Foreign Affairs, Ethiopia from 2012-2016 and as Minister of Health, Ethiopia from 2005-2012.

He has also served as chair of the Board of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria; as chair of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) Partnership Board, and as co-chair of the Board of the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health.

As Minister of Health, Ethiopia, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus led a comprehensive reform effort of the country's health system, including the expansion of the country’s health infrastructure, creating 3500 health centres and 16 000 health posts; expanded the health workforce by 38 000 health extension workers; and initiated financing mechanisms to expand health insurance coverage. As Minister of Foreign Affairs, he led the effort to negotiate the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, in which 193 countries committed to the financing necessary to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

As Chair of the Global Fund and of RBM, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus secured record funding for the two organizations and created the Global Malaria Action Plan, which expanded RBM’s reach beyond Africa to Asia and Latin America.

Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus will succeed Dr Margaret Chan, who has been WHO’s Director-General since 1 January 2007.

For more information, please contact: Gregory Härtl, WHO Department of Communications, Mobile: +41 79 203 67 15, Email: hartlg@who.int | Ms Fadéla Chaib, WHO Department of Communications, Mobile: +41 79 475 5556, Email: chaibf@who.int | Mr Tarik Jasarevic, WHO Department of Communications, Mobile: +41 79 367 6214, Email: jasarevict@who.int | Mr Christian Lindmeier, WHO Department of Communications, Mobile: +41 79 500 6552, Email: lindmeierch@who.int

 

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Keywords: WHO; Updates.

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#Ebola Virus Disease – #DRC – #Situation #Report 8 – May 23 2017 (@WHO, AFRO, edited)

 

Title: #Ebola Virus Disease – #DRC – #Situation #Report 8 – May 23 2017.

Subject: EVD outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo, current situation.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO), Office for Africa Region, full PDF file: (LINK).

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Ebola Virus Disease – Democratic Republic of Congo – Situation Report 8 – May 23 2017

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Ebola; Dem. Rep. Congo.

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#HK, Suspected #MERS case reported (CHP, May 23 ‘17)

 

Title: #HK, Suspected #MERS case reported.

Subject: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, suspected imported case in Hong Kong.

Source: Centre for Health Protection, Hong Kong PRC SAR, full page: (LINK).

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Suspected MERS case reported

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The Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health today (May 23) reported a suspected case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and again urged the public to pay special attention to safety during travel, taking due consideration of health risks of the places of visit.

The case is detailed below:

  • Sex – Female
  • Age – 17
  • Affected areas involved - Israel, Jordan
  • Hospital - Princess Margaret Hospital
  • Condition – Stable
  • MERS-CoV preliminary test result – Pending

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(…)

Travellers to affected areas should maintain vigilance, adopt appropriate health precautions and take heed of personal, food and environmental hygiene.

The public may visit:

Tour leaders and tour guides operating overseas tours are advised to refer to the CHP's health advice on MERS.

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Keywords: HK PRC SAR; Updates; MERS-CoV.

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#China, #Shanxi province reported its second #human case of #H7N9 #influenza (May 23 ‘17)

 

Title: China, Shanxi province reported its second human case of H7N9 influenza.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, human case in Shanxi province of China.

Source: Local Media, full page: (LINK). Article in Chinese, edited.

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China, Shanxi province reported its second human case of H7N9 influenza

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BEIJING, Taiyuan, May 23 - 23 pm, Shanxi Province Health and Family Planning Commission, through its official website, said that Taiyuan reported one confirmed human case of H7N9 influenza.

Up to now, a total of 2 cases of H7N9 have been confirmed in Shanxi.

The new case is a male, 57 years old, farmer, Shanxi Province, Xinzhou City. On May 7, 2017 he developed fever, cough, fatigue and other symptoms, then rushed to the hospital for treatment. On May 23, the provincial expert group combined with the history of patient with epidemiology, clinical manifestations and laboratory tests to diagnose the case as an H7N9 one.

He is currently in Taiyuan Fourth People's Hospital for treatment.

Up to now, 2 cases of H7N9 confirmed cases in Shanxi Province. Informed that the epidemic occurred, the Shanxi Provincial Party Committee, the provincial government attaches great importance to all levels of scientific and orderly conduct of joint defense control, health care departments to treat patients.

After medical surveillance, the 2 cases close contacts showed no clinical abnormalities. (Finish)

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Keywords: China; Shanxi; H7N9; Avian Influenza; Human.

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