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#Analysis of recent #scientific #information on #avian #influenza A(#H7N9) virus - 10 February 2017 (@WHO, edited)

  Title : #Analysis of recent #scientific #information on #avian #influenza A(#H7N9) virus - 10 February 2017. Subject : Avian Influenza, ...

25 Mar 2017

#Brazil reported 492 confirmed #Yellowfever cases as of March 23 2017 (MoH, edited)

 

Title: Brazil reported 492 confirmed Yellow Fever cases as of March 23 2017.

Subject: Sylvatic Yellow Fever Outbreak in Brazil, multi-state, current situation.

Source: Ministry of Health, Brazil, full page: (LINK). Article in Portuguese.

Code: [     ]

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Data de Cadastro: 24/03/2017 as 17:03:46 alterado em 24/03/2017 as 17:03:46 / VIGILÂNCIA

Saúde atualiza casos de febre amarela

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Os casos envolvem, principalmente, a região Sudeste e são de residentes em zonas rurais ou que tiveram contato com áreas silvestres por motivos de trabalho ou lazer

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O Ministério da Saúde atualizou as informações repassadas pelas secretarias estaduais de saúde sobre a situação da febre amarela no país.

Até esta quinta-feira (23), foram confirmados 492 casos da doença.

Ao todo, foram notificados 2.104 casos suspeitos, sendo que 1.101 permanecem em investigação e 511 foram descartados.

Dos 277 óbitos notificados, 162 foram confirmados, 95 ainda são investigados e 20 foram descartados.

Vale destacar que o mês de janeiro registrou o maior número de casos da doença.

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Confira também: |-- Página reúne informações sobre Febre Amarela –|

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A vacinação de rotina para febre amarela é ofertada em 19 estados (Acre, Amazonas, Amapá, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, Tocantins, Distrito Federal, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Bahia, Maranhão, Piauí, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina) com recomendação para imunização.

Vale destacar que na Bahia, Piauí, São Paulo, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, a vacinação não ocorre em todos os municípios. Além das áreas com recomendação, neste momento, também está sendo vacinada de forma escalonada a população do Rio de Janeiro e Espírito Santo. Todas as pessoas que vivem nesses locais devem tomar duas doses da vacina ao longo da vida.

Desde o início deste ano, o Ministério da Saúde tem enviado doses extras da vacina contra a febre amarela aos estados que estão registrando casos suspeitos da doença, além de outros localizados na divisa com áreas que tenham notificado casos. No total, 18,88 milhões de doses extras foram enviadas para cinco estados: Minas Gerais (7,5 milhões), São Paulo (3,93 milhões), Espírito Santo (3,65 milhões), Rio de Janeiro (2,40 milhão) e Bahia (1,4 milhão). O quantitativo é um adicional às doses de rotina do Calendário Nacional de Vacinação, enviadas mensalmente aos estados.

Além disso, foram distribuídas, desde janeiro deste ano, 3 milhões doses da vacina de rotina para todas as unidades da federação. Outras 324 mil doses foram enviadas para intensificar ações nos estados do Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás, Rio Grande do Sul, Piauí, Pará, Paraíba e DF.

 

Distribuição dos casos de febre amarela até 23 de março de 2017

[UF do LPI - Classificação dos casos: Total de casos notificados notificados - Casos em Investigação - Casos Confirmados - Casos Descartados - Municípios com casos notificados]

  • Região Centro-Oeste
    • 1 – Goiás – 30 – 10 – 0 – 20 – 17
    • 2 - Distrito Federal – 9 – 1 – 0 – 8 – 1
    • 3 - Mato Grosso  - 2 – 1 – 0 – 1 – 2
  • Região Norte
    • 4 – Tocantins – 8 – 5 – 0 – 3 – 7
    • 5 – Amapá – 1 – 1 – 0 – 0 – 1
    • 6 – Pará – 8 – 4 – 0 – 4 – 7
  • Região Nordeste
    • 7 – Bahia1 – 22 – 11 – 0 – 11 – 15
    • 8 – Ceará – 3 – 1 – 0 – 2 – 2
    • 9 – Maranhão – 13 – 12 – 0 – 1 – 2
    • 10 - Rio Grande do Norte – 1 – 0 – 0 – 1 – 1
  • Região Sudeste
    • 11 - Espírito Santo – 316 – 140 – 109 – 67 – 49
    • 12 - Minas Gerais2 – 1497 – 828 – 375 – 294 – 154
    • 13 - Rio de Janeiro – 25 – 20 – 3 – 2 – 2
    • 14 - São Paulo – 95 – 44 – 5 – 46 – 55
  • Região Sul
    • 15 - Santa Catarina – 8 – 6 – 0 – 2 – 7
    • 16 – Paraná – 11 – 9 – 0 – 2 – 8
    • 17 - Rio Grande do Sul – 11 – 4 – 0 – 7 – 9
  • UF do LPI em investigação3
    • … – 15 – 4 – 0 – 11 – …
  • Descartados por outras UF´s4
    • … – 29 – 0 – 0 – 29 – …
      • Total – 2104 – 1101 – 492 – 511 – 339

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{1} Excluída uma duplicidade nos casos notificados

{2} Incluídos casos notificados pelas SES BA, ES, GO, SP, SC, PI, RJ e DF com LPI em MG.

{3} Incluídos casos notificados pelas SES PI, SC, AL e DF com LPI em Investigação.

{4{ Incluídos casos notificados e descartados por outras UF´s.

 

Distribuição dos óbitos de febre amarela até 23 de março de 2017

[UF do LPI - Municípios com óbitos notificados - Classificação dos óbitos: Total de casos notificados  - óbitos em Investigação - óbitos Confirmados - óbitos Descasrtados - ]

  • Região Norte
    • 1 – Tocantins – 1 – 1 – 1 – 0 – 0
    • 2 – Pará – 1 – 1 – 1 – 0 – 0
  • Região Nordeste
    • 3 – Bahia – 1 – 1 – 1 – 0 – 0
  • Região Sudeste
    • 4 - Espírito Santo – 24 – 57 – 18 – 33 – 6
    • 5 - Minas Gerais1 – 49 – 197 – 68 – 124 – 5
    • 6 - Rio de Janeiro – 1 – 1 – 0 – 1 – 0
    • 7 - São Paulo – 7 – 10 – 1 – 4 – 5
  • Região Sul
    • 8 - Santa Catarina – 1 – 1 – 1 – 0 – 0
  • UF do LPI em investigação2
    • … – 5 – 4 – 0  - 1
  • Descartados por outras UF´s3
    • … – 3 – … – … – 3
      • Total – 85 – 277 – 95 – 162 – 20

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{1} Incluídos óbitos notificados pelas SES da BA, SP, ES e DF com Local Provável de Infecção em Minas Gerais.

{2} Incluídos óbitos descartados pelas SES AL, PI e SP com LPI em investigação.

{3} Incluídos casos notificados e descartados por outras UF’s.

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Atendimento à imprensa/Ascom/MS : (61) 3315.3580

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Keywords: Brazil; Updates; Yellow fever.

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#China, #Gansu province reported a #pediatric case of #H9N2 #influenza (#Macao SAR DoH, Mar. 25 ‘17)

 

Title: China, Gansu province reported a human case of H9N2 influenza.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 (Asian Lineage) and H9N2 subtypes, human cases in China.

Source: Department of Health, Macao SAR, full page: (LINK). Article in Portuguese.

Code: [     ]

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Confirmados 17 casos do vírus da gripe aviária H7N9 e 1 caso do vírus da gripe aviária H9N2 no Interior da China

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2017-03-24 23:48:00 / Fonte : Serviços de Saúde

Informações divulgadas pelas entidades de saúde do interior da China, indicam que entre os dias 17 e 23 de Março foram registados 17 novos casos confirmados de infecção humana por vírus da gripe aviária H7N9,

…distribuídos por cinco (5) casos na Província de Hunan, três (3) casos na Província de Guangxi, dois (2) casos na Província de Zhejiang, dois (2) casos na Província de Hubei, um (1) caso nas Províncias de Jiangxi, Jiangsu, Henan, Fujian e Guizhou respectivamente.

Os pacientes têm idades compreendidas entre os 37 e os 86 anos, sendo a média de idades de 64 anos.

Onze são homens e seis (6) são mulheres.

Foi confirmada a morte de dois (2) dos pacientes, treze (13) pacientes encontram-se com pneumonia grave, e dois (2) pacientes com pneumonia ligeira.

Pelo menos 16 casos tinham estado em mercados de aves vivas antes do início dos sintomas, tendo um historial de contacto com aves vivas.

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Além disso, informações divulgadas pelas entidades de saúde do interior da China, indicam que hoje (24 de Março), foi registado 1 novo caso confirmado de retrospectiva de infecção humana por vírus da gripe aviária H9N2 na Província de Gansu.

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O paciente é um bebé com idades de 11 meses e mora na cidade de Lanzhou. Apresentou sintomas no dia 6 de Fevereiro de 2017, tendo baixa no dia 15 de Fevereiro com estado clínico estável. Agora já está recuperado. Antes da doença, teve contacto com aves vivas em sua casa.

Desde Setembro de 2016 foram registadas infecções em diversas zonas, nomeadamente: Província de Jiangsu, de Zhejiang, de Anhui, de Fujian, de Cantão (Guangdong), de Hunan, de Hubei, de Jiangxi, de Guizhou, de Shandong, de Liaoning, de Henan, de Sichuan, de Guangxi e municipalidade de Chongqing e de Xangai.

(…)

Para informações detalhadas sobre a gripe aviária H7N9, pode consultar o sítio electrónico dos Serviços de Saúde (www.ssm.gov.mo) ou ligar para a linha aberta de informações de doenças transmissíveis dos Serviços de Saúde (28 700 800) no horário de funcionamento.

-- Fim --

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Keywords: China; Macao SAR; Updates; Gansu; H7N9; H9N2; Avian Influenza; Human.

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24 Mar 2017

Today is #WorldTBDay. 2 billion people–or 1/4 of the world’s population–are infected with #TB (@CDCgov)

 

Title: Today is #WorldTBDay. 2 billion people–or 1/4 of the world’s population–are infected with #TB.

Subject: Tuberculosis, current global epidemiological situation and response.

Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), full page: (LINK). via Instagram.

Code: [ EDU ]

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Keywords: US CDC; Updates; Educational Materials; Tuberculosis; Worldwide.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N6, #Japan [two #poultry #outbreaks] (#OIE, Mar. 24 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N6, #Japan [two #poultry #outbreaks].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N6 subtype, poultry epizootics in Japan.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6, Japan

Information received on 24/03/2017 from Dr Kazuo Ito, Director, International Animal Health Affairs Office, Animal Health Division, Food Safety and Consumer Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tokyo, Japan

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 12
    • Date of start of the event    28/11/2016
    • Date of confirmation of the event    28/11/2016
    • Report date    23/03/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE    24/03/2017
    • Reason for notification    Reoccurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence    17/02/2015
    • Manifestation of disease    Clinical disease
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype    H5N6
    • Nature of diagnosis    Clinical, Laboratory (basic)
    • This event pertains to    the whole country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 2
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Destroyed    - Slaughtered
        • Birds    - 288000    - 71    - 71  - 0 – …
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Birds    - 0.02%    - 0.02%    - 100.00%    - **
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
          • **Not calculated because of missing information
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Epidemiological comments   
    • Outbreak 11 (Miyagi, Kurihara-shi) – this report
      • On 23 March 2017, the local veterinary service in Miyagi Prefecture received a notification from a domestic hen farm on an increase in the number of dead birds (45 birds on the same day).
      • The samples from dead birds were confirmed to be influenza A virus positive by antigen-capture kits (on site) and to be subtype H5 by RT-PCR and RRT-PCR in Miyagi Livestock Hygiene Service Centre.
      • Destruction of all the susceptible birds in the affected farm is being implemented.
      • Movement and shipment restrictions are imposed on the farms within a radius of 3km and 3-10 km of the affected farm, respectively.
    • Outbreak 12 (Chiba, Asahi-shi) – this report
      • On 23 March 2017, the local veterinary service in Chiba Prefecture received a notification from a domestic hen farm on an increase in the number of dead birds (26 birds on the same day).
      • The samples from dead birds were confirmed to be influenza A virus positive by antigen-capture kits (on site) and to be subtype H5 by RT-PCR and RRT-PCR in Chu-ou Livestock Hygiene Service Centre.
      • Destruction of all the susceptible birds in the affected farm is being implemented.
      • Movement and shipment restrictions are imposed on the farms within a radius of 3km and 3-10 km of the affected farm, respectively.

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N6 ; Poultry; Japan.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Germany [13 #poultry, #wildbirds #outbreaks] (#OIE, Mar. 24 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Germany [13 #poultry, #wildbirds #outbreaks].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, poultry and wild birds epizootics in Germany.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ][     ]

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8, Germany

Information received on 23/03/2017 from Dr. Karin Schwabenbauer, Ministerial Dirigentin and Chief Veterinary Officer , Directorate of Animal Health, Animal Welfare, Bundesministerium für Ernährung und Landwirtschaft (BMEL) , Bonn, Germany

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 26
    • Date of start of the event    07/11/2016
    • Date of confirmation of the event    08/11/2016
    • Report date    23/03/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE    23/03/2017
    • Reason for notification    Reoccurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence    09/2015
    • Manifestation of disease    Clinical disease
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype    H5N8
    • Nature of diagnosis    Clinical, Laboratory (basic), Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to    the whole country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 13
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Destroyed    - Slaughtered
        • Ardeidae (unidentified):Ardeidae (incognita)(Ardeidae)   - … – 1    - 1    - 0    - 0
        • Anatidae (unidentified):Anatidae (incognita)(Anatidae)  - … – 5    - 5    - 0    - 0
        • Phalacrocoracidae (unidentified):Phalacrocoracidae (incognita)(Phalacrocoracidae)  - … – 1    - 1    - 0    - 0
        • Birds    - 99274    - 7122    - 82    - 99192    - 0
        • Accipitridae (unidentified):Accipitridae (incognita)(Accipitridae)  - … – 1    - 1    - 0    - 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Ardeidae (unidentified):Ardeidae (incognita)(Ardeidae)    - **    - **    - 100.00%    - **
        • Anatidae (unidentified):Anatidae (incognita)(Anatidae)    - **    - **    - 100.00%    - **
        • Phalacrocoracidae (unidentified):Phalacrocoracidae (incognita)(Phalacrocoracidae)    - **    - **    - 100.00%    - **
        • Birds    - 7.17%    - 0.08%    - 1.15%    - 100.00%
        • Accipitridae (unidentified):Accipitridae (incognita)(Accipitridae)    - **    - **    - 100.00%    - **
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
          • **Not calculated because of missing information
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Epidemiological comments   
    • All poultry have been culled and safely disposed of.
    • No poultry or poultry products have been dispatched.
    • Restriction zones have been established and epidemiological investigations started.

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N8 ; Poultry; Wild Birds; Germany.

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Low pathogenic #avian #influenza #H7N9, #USA [three #poultry #outbreaks] (#OIE, Mar. 24 ‘17)


Title: Low pathogenic #avian #influenza #H7N9, #USA [three #poultry #outbreaks].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, poultry epizootics in USA.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Low pathogenic avian influenza (poultry) H7N9, United States of America

Information received on 24/03/2017 from Dr John Clifford, Official Delegate, Chief Trade Advisor, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, United States of America

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 1
    • Date of start of the event    06/03/2017
    • Date of confirmation of the event    08/03/2017
    • Report date    24/03/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE    24/03/2017
    • Reason for notification    Reoccurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence    2017
    • Manifestation of disease    Sub-clinical infection
    • Causal agent    Low pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype    H7N9
    • Nature of diagnosis    Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to    a defined zone within the country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 3
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Destroyed    - Slaughtered
        • Birds    - 65931    - **    - 0    - 41931    - 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Birds    - **    - 0.00%    - **    - **
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
          • **Not calculated because of missing information
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Epidemiological comments   
    • As part of routine testing and surveillance for H5/H7 Avian Influenza, low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N9 of North American wild bird lineage was detected in healthy broiler breeder chickens.
    • Although this is a low pathogenicity H7 strain, as a precautionary preventive measure, flocks are being depopulated.
    • The USDA Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and State Departments of Agriculture are conducting comprehensive epidemiological investigations and have implemented enhanced surveillance and testing related to the event.

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H7N9 ; Poultry; USA.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Czech Republic [a #poultry #outbreak] (#OIE, Mar. 24 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Czech Republic [a #poultry #outbreak].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, poultry epizootics in Czech Republic.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8, Czech Republic

Information received on 24/03/2017 from Dr Zbyněk Semerád, Director General, State Veterinary Administration, Veterinary Administration, Prague, Czech Republic

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 12
    • Date of start of the event    04/01/2017
    • Date of confirmation of the event    04/01/2017
    • Report date    24/03/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE    24/03/2017
    • Reason for notification    First occurrence of a listed disease
    • Manifestation of disease    Clinical disease
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype    H5N8
    • Nature of diagnosis    Clinical, Laboratory (advanced), Necropsy
    • This event pertains to    a defined zone within the country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 1
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Destroyed    - Slaughtered
        • Birds    - 34    - 6    - 6    - 28    - 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Birds    - 17.65%    - 17.65%    - 100.00%    - 100.00%
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Contact with infected animal(s) at grazing/watering

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N8 ; Poultry; Czech Republic.

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#Zoonotic #influenza viruses: #antigenic and #genetic #characteristics and #development of CVVs for #pandemic #preparedness (@WHO)

 

Title: #Zoonotic #influenza viruses: #antigenic and #genetic #characteristics and #development of CVVs for #pandemic #preparedness.

Subject: Influenza A Virus of Animal Origin with pandemic potential, WHO report.

Source: Weekly Epidemiological Record, World Health Organization (WHO), full PDF file: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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{Note for the Readers: Should the internal viewer not work into your environment, please follow the link to the full document: https://1drv.ms/b/s!ArIyah1g_f4uvEp2OxTJz0jEosE7  }

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Worldwide; Avian Influenza; Swine Influenza; H5N1, H5N6; H7N9; H9N2; H3N2v, H1N1v.

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#Meningococcal #disease – #Nigeria (@WHO, Mar. 24 ‘17)

 

Title: #Meningococcal #disease – #Nigeria.

Subject: Meningococcal Disease Outbreak in Nigeria, current situation.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO), full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Meningococcal disease – Nigeria

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Disease outbreak news  / 24 March 2017

As of 19 March 2017 (epidemiological week 11), a total of 1407 suspected cases of meningitis and 211 deaths (case fatality rate: 15%) have been reported from 40 local government areas (LGAs) in five states of Nigeria since December 2016.

Zamfara, Katsina and Sokoto account for 89% of these cases.

Twenty-six LGAs from all five states reported 361 cases in epidemiological week 11 alone.

Twenty-two wards in 15 LGAs have crossed the epidemic threshold.

Three of these LGAs share borders with Niger.

NmC is the predominant serotype in this outbreak.

The most affected age group is 5 to 14 year olds and they are responsible for about half of reported cases. Both sexes are almost equally affected.

 

Public health response

WHO and partners including National Primary health Care Development Authority, UNICEF, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory training Program, eHealth Africa, Médecins Sans Frontières, Rotary International, and Nigeria Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are providing support to this outbreak.

The following measures are being implemented:

  • Nigeria Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, with support from the WHO, is taking the overall lead in coordinating the response at the national level.
  • Daily coordination meetings are being held at the state and LGA levels.
  • The rapid response teams are conducting active case finding, performing lumbar puncture of suspect cases and training local staff on case management.
  • Case management is being carried out at the public health centres at the LGA level.
  • 19 600 persons were vaccinated with the meningococcal ACWY vaccine in Gora ward in Zamfara state.
  • 500 000 doses of meningococcal AC PS vaccines and injection supplies was approved by the International Coordination Group (ICG) for utilization in Zamfara State which are planned to arrive on 27 March 2017.
  • Katsina state is preparing an ICG request for submission.

 

WHO risk assessment

The successful roll-out of MenA conjugate vaccine has resulted to the decreasing trend of meningitis A, however, other meningococcal serogroups are still causing epidemics. The most recent outbreak that has been reported was in Togo due to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W (see Disease Outbreak News as published by WHO on 23 February 2017).

 

WHO advice

The outbreak response consists of appropriate case management with reactive mass vaccination of populations. Promptness of the reactive campaign is essential, ideally within four weeks of crossing the epidemic threshold.

WHO does not recommend any travel or trade restriction to Nigeria based on the current information available on this outbreak.

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Meningococcal Diseases; N. Meningitidis sg C; Nigeria.

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#Epidemiological #update: #Yellowfever #outbreak in #Brazil, 24 Mar 2017 (@ECDC_EU)

 

Title: #Epidemiological #update: #Yellowfever #outbreak in #Brazil, 24 Mar 2017

Subject: Sylvatic Yellow Fever Outbreak in Brazil, multi-state, current situation.

Source: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Epidemiological update: Yellow fever outbreak in Brazil, 24 Mar 2017

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Yellow fever is a mosquito-borne viral infection present in some tropical areas of Africa and South America.

In South America, there are two transmission cycles of yellow fever:

  • A sylvatic cycle, involving transmission of the virus between Haemagogus or Sabethes mosquitoes and primates.
    • The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes from primates to humans when humans are visiting or working in the forest.
  • An urban cycle, involving transmission of the virus between Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and humans.
    • The virus is usually introduced in an urban area by a viraemic human who was infected in the forest.
  • Brazil has been experiencing an outbreak of yellow fever since December 2016. The outbreak was notified on 6 January 2017.

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After the WHO DON posted on 20 March, WHO recommend vaccination of international travellers above nine months going State of Rio de Janeiro, with the exception of the urban areas of Rio de Janeiro City and Niterói, and the State of São Paulo, with the exception of the urban areas of São Paulo City and Campinas.

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Weekly Summary

  • Since 16 March 2017, national public health authorities in Brazil have not reported any new confirmed case of yellow fever.
  • WHO has extended its vaccination recommendations to the state of Rio de Janeiro, with the exception of the urban areas of Rio de Janeiro City and Niterói, and to the State of São Paulo, with the exception of the urban areas of São Paulo City and Campinas.
  • This week, according to WHO PAHO update, Peru reported one additional case.

 

Epidemiological Summary

    • Between 6 January and 16 March 2017, Brazil has reported 1 357 cases (933 suspected and 424 confirmed), including 249 deaths (112 suspected and 137 confirmed). The case-fatality rate is 18.3% among all cases and 32.3% among confirmed cases.
  • States reporting suspected and confirmed autochthonous cases:
    • Minas Gerais has reported 1 074 cases (749 suspected and 325 confirmed), including 189 deaths (78 suspected and 111 confirmed).
    • Espírito Santo has reported 243 cases (150 suspected and 93 confirmed), including 48 deaths (26 suspected and 22 confirmed).
    • São Paulo has reported 15 cases (11 suspected and four confirmed), including four deaths (one suspected and three confirmed).
    • Rio de Janeiro has reported three cases (one suspected and two confirmed), including one confirmed death.
  • States reporting suspected autochthonous cases:
    • Bahia has reported eight suspected cases, including one fatal.
    • Tocantins has reported six suspected cases, including one fatal.
    • Rio Grande do Norte has reported one suspected case, fatal.
    • Goiás has reported three suspected cases, not fatal.
  • In addition, investigations are ongoing to determine the probable infection site of four further suspected cases.
  • Other countries in South America:
    • From week 1 to 11 of 2017, five other countries reported suspected and/or confirmed cases of yellow fever:
      • Bolivia (1),
      • Colombia (1),
      • Ecuador (1),
      • Peru (8) and
      • Suriname (1).
    • This week, WHO PAHO reported one additional case in Peru. From the beginning of the year to 23 March 2017, Peru has notified three confirmed cases and five probable cases. Among these eight cases, two have died.
  • Sources:

 

ECDC Assessment

  • The ongoing outbreak should be carefully monitored, as the establishment of an urban cycle of yellow fever would have the potential to quickly affect a large number of people.
  • EU/EEA citizens who travel to, or live in, areas where there is evidence of yellow fever virus transmission should check their vaccination status and obtain medical advice about being vaccinated against yellow fever.
  • In Europe, Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of yellow fever in urban settings, is present in Madeira.
  • Recent studies have shown that Aedes albopictus can potentially transmit the yellow fever virus.
  • However, the risk of the virus being introduced into local competent vector populations in the EU through viraemic travellers from Brazil is considered to be very low, as the current weather conditions in Europe are not favourable for vector activity.
  • ECDC closely monitors this event in collaboration with the World Health Organization.
  • ECDC is also producing a map for travel advice.

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- See more at: http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/press/news/_layouts/forms/News_DispForm.aspx?ID=1580&List=8db7286c-fe2d-476c-9133-18ff4cb1b568&Source=http%3A%2F%2Fecdc%2Eeuropa%2Eeu%2Fen%2FPages%2Fhome%2Easpx#sthash.yRv2z8Pc.dpuf

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Keywords: ECDC; Updates; Yellow fever; Brazil.

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